E-ISSN 2229-7723 | ISSN 0976-9234
 

Original Article 


The Effect of Fetal Gender and Gravidity on Melasma of Pregnancy

Alaa A. Naif, Bassam Hassan, Kadhim A. Kadhim,Sabah H. Rhadi.

Abstract
Background Melasma is a common cause of consultations by dark-skinned patients at dermatology departments. However, few studies on
this condition have been done in Iraq.
Objective To investigate the relationship between gravidity and fetal gender on the one hand and the chloasma of pregnancy on the other
hand in the population.
Methods We collected date using structured self-administered questionnaire. A total of 50 female melasmic patients who were referred to
the hospital for a consultation and fulfill the criteria were included prospectively from April 2021 to August 2021. A cross –sectional study
was conducted
Results Our study showed 50% presented were a phototype III, 44% were a phototype IV and 6% were a phototype II. The mean of age was
34.32 + 5.12 years. About 70% of sample developed melasma at age above thirty. The association between melasma and gravidity showed
that a multigravida women constitute 96% and primigravida women constitute 4% of the sample. Furthermore, our study showed there was
a relationship between gender of the baby and melasma
Conclusion This study identified that melasma of pregnancy is more common in women who had a male fetus and a multigravida

Key words: Fetal gender, Gravidity, Melisma, Pregnancy.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Alaa A. Naif, Bassam Hassan, Kadhim A. Kadhim,Sabah H. Rhadi. The Effect of Fetal Gender and Gravidity on Melasma of Pregnancy. PNR. 2022; 13(1): 56-59. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.011


Web Style

Alaa A. Naif, Bassam Hassan, Kadhim A. Kadhim,Sabah H. Rhadi. The Effect of Fetal Gender and Gravidity on Melasma of Pregnancy. https://www.pnrjournal.com/?mno=8973 [Access: April 20, 2022]. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.011


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alaa A. Naif, Bassam Hassan, Kadhim A. Kadhim,Sabah H. Rhadi. The Effect of Fetal Gender and Gravidity on Melasma of Pregnancy. PNR. 2022; 13(1): 56-59. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.011



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alaa A. Naif, Bassam Hassan, Kadhim A. Kadhim,Sabah H. Rhadi. The Effect of Fetal Gender and Gravidity on Melasma of Pregnancy. PNR. (2022), [cited April 20, 2022]; 13(1): 56-59. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.011



Harvard Style

Alaa A. Naif, Bassam Hassan, Kadhim A. Kadhim,Sabah H. Rhadi (2022) The Effect of Fetal Gender and Gravidity on Melasma of Pregnancy. PNR, 13 (1), 56-59. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.011



Turabian Style

Alaa A. Naif, Bassam Hassan, Kadhim A. Kadhim,Sabah H. Rhadi. 2022. The Effect of Fetal Gender and Gravidity on Melasma of Pregnancy. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 13 (1), 56-59. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.011



Chicago Style

Alaa A. Naif, Bassam Hassan, Kadhim A. Kadhim,Sabah H. Rhadi. "The Effect of Fetal Gender and Gravidity on Melasma of Pregnancy." Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results 13 (2022), 56-59. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.011



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alaa A. Naif, Bassam Hassan, Kadhim A. Kadhim,Sabah H. Rhadi. "The Effect of Fetal Gender and Gravidity on Melasma of Pregnancy." Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results 13.1 (2022), 56-59. Print. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.011



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alaa A. Naif, Bassam Hassan, Kadhim A. Kadhim,Sabah H. Rhadi (2022) The Effect of Fetal Gender and Gravidity on Melasma of Pregnancy. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 13 (1), 56-59. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.011