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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 55-57  

Beta vulgaris : A dearth of antidepressant activity in mice


Shree Sureshdada Jain Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Center, Jamner, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication15-Jan-2011

Correspondence Address:
Ashok Agrawal
Shree Sureshdada Jain Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Center, Jamner, Tal: - Jamner,Dist: - Jalgaon, Maharashtra - 424 206
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0976-9234.75706

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   Abstract 

The present study was undertaken to investigate antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Beta vulgaris [BV], by using forced swim test [FST] and tail suspension test [TST] in mice. Imipramine [10 mg/kg, i.p.] used as the standard drug significantly decreased immobility time in both TST and FST, while BV [50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.] significantly increased immobility time in TST and FST. This suggests that BV has depressant activity and not antidepressant activity.

Keywords: Beta vulgaris , forced swim test, tail suspension test


How to cite this article:
Agrawal A, Bavaskar S, Salunkhe P, Manyar N, Kale D, Kawtikwar P. Beta vulgaris : A dearth of antidepressant activity in mice. J Pharm Negative Results 2010;1:55-7

How to cite this URL:
Agrawal A, Bavaskar S, Salunkhe P, Manyar N, Kale D, Kawtikwar P. Beta vulgaris : A dearth of antidepressant activity in mice. J Pharm Negative Results [serial online] 2010 [cited 2019 Sep 22];1:55-7. Available from: http://www.pnrjournal.com/text.asp?2010/1/2/55/75706


   Introduction Top


Depressive affect or feeling is a normal response to disappointment, loss or other painful events of human life. According to the WHO World Health Survey, depression produces the greatest decrement in health when compared with the chronic diseases angina, arthritis, asthma and diabetes [1] and by the year 2020 will be second only to cardiovascular illness in contributing to the total disease burden imposed on humankind worldwide. [2] Depressive affects are self-limited and do not usually significantly interfere with a person's functional capacity unless they become long-lasting. [3] Moreover, it has been postulated that in some situations the depressive mood might even be useful and may have offered a selective advantage in humans' evolutionary history, by disengaging former goals and reallocating resources. [4] A metabolic disorder of monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) is believed to be the main biochemical symptom of depression.

Beta vulgaris, a native of the coasts of Mediterranean, is extensively cultivated in Europe, America and many parts of India. [5] Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Beta vulgaris have been reported to possess free-radical-scavenging activity, reducing the radical cations and phase II enzyme-inducing activities in a murine hepatoma cell in vitro study. Further, the phenolic amides isolated from the seeds of Beta vulgaris have been shown to produce an inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in experimental isolated tissues in a dose-dependent manner. [6] There are some reports indicating the potential hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Beta vulgaris, though without any scientific proof. [7]


   Materials and Methods Top


Plant material and extraction

The roots of Beta vulgaris [Family: Chenopodiaceae] were authenticated by Dr. Tanveer A. Khan at the Department of Botany, M. J. College, Jalgaon. Five hundred grams of root were macerated with ethanol for 2 days, and the extract was concentrated under reduced pressure. The extract was dried and stored in amber-colored bottle in a refrigerator.

Animals

Male Albino mice weighing 20-25 g were bred in our animal house [at Shree Sureshdada Jain Pharmaceutical Education and Research Center, Jamner, India] and used for the study. Animals were housed in groups of 5 per cage under standard laboratory conditions of temperature [25 ± 2°C] and relative humidity (45%-55%) and a 12/12-hour light/dark cycle. They had access to standard pellet chow [Pranav Agro Industries Ltd., Sangali] and water. All experiments were carried out between 8:00 a.m. and 04:00 p.m. Food, but not water, was withdrawn 4 hours prior to administrations of extracts and drug, till completion of the experiment. The institutional animal ethical committee [IAEC] approved the protocol of this study.

Drugs

The drugs used were Beta vulgaris (BV) 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. and imipramine [10 mg/kg i.p.]. All drugs were administered 30 minutes before the start of experiments.

Tail suspension test

In the tail suspension test, mice suspended by the tail show initial struggling, followed by periods of immobility that increase in duration across the 6-minute test. The total duration of immobility induced by tail suspension was measured according to the method described by Steru et al., as a facile means of evaluating potential antidepressants. [8] Mice were hung individually 58 cm above the floor by adhesive tape placed approximately 1 cm away from the tip of the tail. Immobility was recorded during the 6-minute period, in which immobility during the initial 2-minute period was discarded. The animal was considered to be immobile when it did not show any movement of body and hanged passively.

Forced swim test

Behavior despair was proposed as a model to test for antidepressant activity by Porsolt. [9],[10] Mice were forced to swim individually in a glass jar [25×12×25 cm 3 ] containing fresh water of 15 cm height and maintained at 25°C. After an initial 2-minute period of vigorous activity, each animal assumed a typical immobile posture. A mouse was considered to be immobile when it remained floating in the water without struggling, making only minimum movements of its limbs necessary to keep its head above water. The total duration of immobility was recorded during the next 4 minutes of the total of 6 minutes' duration of the test. The changes in immobility duration were studied after administering drugs in separate groups of animals.

Statistics

All the data are shown as mean ± SEM (standard error of mean). Statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. Differences with P < .05 were considered statistically significant.


   Results Top


Effect of BV on immobility duration in the tail suspension test

In the tail suspension test, BV exhibited an increase in duration of immobility. The results were statistically significant for both dose levels, as shown in [Figure 1].
Figure 1 :Effect of BV on immobility duration in TST. All the data are shown as mean ± SEM. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. *P < .05 compared with control.

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Effect of BV on immobility duration in the forced swim test

In the forced swim test, BV exhibited an increase in duration of immobility in the mice. The results were statistically significant for both dose levels, as shown in [Figure 2].
Figure 2 :Effect of BV on immobility duration in FST. All the data are shown as mean ± SEM. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. *P < .05 compared with control.

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   Discussion Top


In the present study, BV at both dose levels produced significant depressant effect in mice in both forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Both these models of depression are widely used to screen new antidepressant drugs. [8],[9] This immobility, referred to as behavioral despair in animals, is claimed to reproduce a condition similar to human depression. [8],[11] It has been argued that the TST is less stressful than FST and has greater pharmacological sensitivity. [12] These tests are quite sensitive and relatively specific to all major classes of antidepressant drugs, including tricyclics, serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and atypical antideppresant drugs. [8],[9],[13] In conclusion, our results suggest that BV produces depressant effect in mice in both FST and TST, and this effect seems to be mediated most likely through blocking of adrenergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic or GABAnergic system. Thus the results obtained in the present study require further investigation to elucidate the depression induced by Beta vulgaris extracts by using various agonist-antagonist systems. Furthermore, in clinical populations, the possibility of pharmacological interactions between drugs and Beta vulgaris extracts must be considered.

 
   References Top

1.Moussavi S, Chatterji S, Verdes E, Tandon A, Patel V, Ustun B. Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: Results from the World Health Surveys. Lancet 2007;370:851-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
2.Murray CJ, López AD. Evidence-based health policy - lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Science 1996;274:740-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4 th ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Nesse RM. Evolutionary Explanations for Mood and Mood Disorders. In: Stein DJ, Kupfer DJ, Schatzberg AF, editors. Textbook of Mood Disorders. Washington, DC: The American Psychiatric Publishing; 2006. p. 159-75.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra C. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. New Delhi: CSIR; 1956. 7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Wettasinghe M, Bolling B, Plhak L, Xiao H, Parkin K. Phase II enzyme-inducing and antioxidant activities of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extracts from phenotypes of different pigmentation. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:6704-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
7.Duke JA, Bogenschutz-Godwin MJ, Du J, Cellier P. Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton: FL7 CRC Press; 2002. p. 68.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B, Simon P. The tail suspension test: A new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1985;85:367-70.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.Porsolt RD, Bertin A, Jalfre M. Behavioral despair in mice: A primary screening test for antidepressants. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1977;229:327-36.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.Porsolt RD, Anton G, Deniel M, Jalfre M. Behavioral despair in rats: A new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Eur J Pharmacol 1978;47:379-91.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Willner P. The validity of animal models of depression. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1984;83:1-16.  Back to cited text no. 11
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12.Thierry B, Steru L, Simon P, Porsolt RD. The tail suspension test: ethical considerations. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1986;90:284-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Detke MJ, Rickels M, Lucki I. Active behavior in the rat forced swimming test differentially produced by serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1995; 121:66-72.  Back to cited text no. 13
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]



 

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