|Year : 2012 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 22-25
Lack of analgesic property in xanthium strumarium Linn. Fruit's butanolic extracts
Deepak Jain, Shashi Bharti Shukla, Sofiya Verma
Department of Pharmacology , Shri Ram Institute of Technology, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||11-Aug-2012|
Shashi Bharti Shukla
Dhanwantri Nagar, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Objective: The objective of the present study is to investigate the analgesic activity profile of xanthium strumarium Linn. (Family: Asteraceae) in mice and rats, using various models. Materials and Methods: The effects of the butanolic extract were observed in three different dose levels 50, 100, and 150 mg / kg, as the extract did not show any sign of toxicity up to 500 mg / kg (p.o.) dose. The investigation was carried out for assessing the activity on thermal and chemical-induced pain reactions. Result: The Xanthium strumarium (XS) fruit's butanolic extract did not have any significant effect on the thermal pain reaction (hot plate method). The extract was devoid of any protective effect against acetic acid-induced writhing, at any of the tested doses. Conclusion: The Xanthium strumarium Fruits' butanolic extract lacked analgesic activity.
Keywords: Analgesic, acetic acid, investigation, writhing
|How to cite this article:|
Jain D, Shukla SB, Verma S. Lack of analgesic property in xanthium strumarium Linn. Fruit's butanolic extracts. J Pharm Negative Results 2012;3:22-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Jain D, Shukla SB, Verma S. Lack of analgesic property in xanthium strumarium Linn. Fruit's butanolic extracts. J Pharm Negative Results [serial online] 2012 [cited 2020 May 29];3:22-5. Available from: http://www.pnrjournal.com/text.asp?2012/3/1/22/99643
| Introduction|| |
Xanthium strumarium L. belongs to the family of Asteraceae and its hindi name is chota gokhru. It is a gregarious weed found abundantly throughout India. The whole plant is used as a diaphoretic, sedative, diuretic, and in malarial fever. The fruits are believed to be used for small pox and the roots for cancer.  The stems are used for their hypoglycemic activity. The medicinal value of this plant lies in its bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce specific physiological action on the human body. The phytochemical studies on chota gokhru reveal that it contains many types of biologically active, naturally occurring chemicals, including saponins, flavanoids, tannins, terpanoids, phenolic compounds, essential oils, glycosides, alkaloids, and many different types of plant steroids, some of which have never been seen before in science.  The fruit of the plant contains a mixture of alkaloids, which are said to be toxic, that is, the sesquiterpene lactones xanthinin, xanthinin and xanthatin. Various extracts of xanthium strumarium L., as well as, these extracted plant steroids called Xanthium have shown strong in vitro and in vivo (mice) activities against numerous types of human and animal cancer cells, including lung, colon, nasopharynx, liver, cervix, melanoma, and glioma (brain) cancer cells. 
| Materials and Methods|| |
Collection and its authentication
The Whole Plant of Xanthium Strumarium L. was collected from Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, in the months of October - November, 2010. The plant was identified with the help of the available literature and authenticated by Dr. Archana Bajpai, professor and Head, Department of Botany and Environmental Science, Covernment Model Science College, Jabalpur (M.P.) 482002. The plants were dried in the shade for 20 days prior to study.
Preparation of butanolic extract
Butanolic (70%) extract of dried, milled coarse fruit powder was prepared by cold maceration. The extract was filtered through a muslin cloth and evaporated at 40°C up to one-third of the initial volume, and the remaining solvent was completely evaporated using a rotary vacuum evaporator (Superfit, Mumbai, India). The extract was then weighed and the percentage yield calculated. The color and consistency of the extract was noted and it was subjected to different tests, to detect the presence of various phytoconstituents. 
The drugs used in the study were obtained from the following sources: Indomethacine (Ranbaxy, Dewas, MP). The standard drugs were dissolved in water for injection and administered intraperitoneally (i.p.)
Healthy adult male Wistar albino rats between two and three months of age, weighing about 50 - 60 g were used for the study. The animals were housed in polypropylene cages, maintained under standard conditions (12-hour light: 12-hour dark cycle; 25 ± 30°C; 35 - 60% humidity). A commercial pellet diet (Hindustan Lever, Delhi, India) and water were provided ad libitum. All the experiments were performed between 09:00 and 17:00 hours. The Ethical Committee approval was obtained before carrying out these experiments on rats and mice.
Dried crude extract was freshly dissolved in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and normal saline was used as the vehicle control. Toxicity was calculated on the basis of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. A group of four rats was administered the plant extract in graded doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g / kg rat. The rats were continuously observed for mortality and behavioral responses for 48 hours and once daily thereafter until the fourteenth day. Dose selection was performed by taking one-tenth of the lethal dose. Ld 50, as obtained from this experiment was 1000 mg / kg rat. The dose of the Xanthium strumarium L. extract selected for our experiment was therefore 100 mg / kg rat. 
Hot plate (Thermal) test
Albino rats were administered the extract orally (100 mg / kg) and immediately placed on a hot plate maintained at 50°C. The time taken by the animals to lick the fore or hind paw or jump out of the plate was taken as the reaction time, which was noted at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. 
Acetic acid (Chemical induced) writhing method
The writhing response was elicited by an intraperitoneal injection of 0.75% acetic acid at the dose of 0.1 ml / 10 g body weight. The drug XS at a dose of 100 mg / kg in olive oil was administered orally, 30 minutes before the acetic acid injection. Indomethacine at a dose of 10 mg / kg body weight in olive oil served as reference drug and the control animals were given the vehicle alone. The number of writhings was noted for 15 minutes beginning five minutes after acetic acid injection. Reduction in the number of abdominal contractions compared to the control was considered as an analgesic response, after the administration of the test samples. Indomethacine was used as reference drug. Control groups received the vehicle alone. ,
The experimental data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. A value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Graph Pad Prism Version 3.02 software (San Diego, CA, USA) was used for statistical calculations.
| Results and Discussion|| |
Acute toxicity studies
All DMSO-treated rats showed that no discernible behavioral changes were observed up to 500 mg / kg by the oral route. No mortality was observed at this dose during the 72-hour observation period.
Hot plate test
The hot plate analgesic activities showed an increase 60 minutes after administration of the drug. The maximal effect was observed after two hours [Table 1] and [Figure 1]. Extract-treated rats did not show an increase in reaction time as compared to the drug-treated animals.
|Table 1: Analgesic activities of xanthium strumarium and indomethacine in rats (Acetic acid induced writhing test)|
Click here to view
|Figure 1: Analgesic activities of xanthium strumarium and Indomethacine in rats|
Click here to view
Acetic acid-induced writhing test
The effects of XS and the reference drug Indomethacine on the writhing response in mice are shown in [Table 2] and [Figure 2]. It was found that Indomethacine caused significant inhibition on the writhing response induced by acetic acid. However, the extract did not show any inhibition or insufficient inhibition on the writhing induced by acetic acid.
|Table 2: Analgesic activities of xanthium strumarium L. and Indomethacine (Hot Plate Test)|
Click here to view
| Conclusion|| |
The Xanthium strumarium L. fruit's extract, when administered orally up to a dose of 150 mg / kg in albino rats, showed no sign of analgesic activity. The Xanthium strumarium L. fruit's butanolic extract did not have any effect on the thermal- or chemical-induced pain reactions. The butanolic extract had no analgesic activity.
| References|| |
|1.||Bisht NP, Singh R. Chemical constituents of the stem and roots of xanthium strumarium L. J Indian Chem Soc 1979;56:108-9. |
|2.||AHMED TS, Magaji M, Yaro A, Musa A, Adamu A. Aqueous Methanol Extracts of Cochlospermum tinctorium (A. Rich) Possess Analgesicand Anti-inflammatory Activities. J Young Pharm 2011;3:237-42. |
|3.||Barua CC, Roy JD, Buragohain B, Barua AG, Borah P, Lahkar M. Analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata Willd.Indian J Pharmacol 2011;43:121-5. |
|4.||Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Text book of pharmacognosy carbohydrate and derivative products, drugs containing glycosides, drug containing tannins, lipids, proteins alkaloids. 7 th ed. Pune, India:Nirali Prakashan; 2001. p.133-66, 167-254, 255-69, 272-310, 428-523. |
|5.||Diener W, Mischke U, Kayser D, Schlede E. The evaluation of the OECD modified version of acute toxicity class method (oral). Arc Toxicol1995;69;729-34. |
|6.||Sasikala V, Saravanan S, Parimelazhagan T. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Passiflora foetida L.Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;4:600-3. |
|7.||Adeyemi OO, Aigbe FR, Uyaiabasi NG.Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous stem and leaf extract of Asystasia gangetica (Linn) T. Anderson.Nig Q J Hosp Med 2011;21:129-34. |
|8.||Bhaskar M, Jagtap AG.Exploring the possible mechanisms of action behind the antinociceptive activity of Bacopa monniera.Int J Ayurveda Res 2011;2:2-7. |
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2]