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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 9-12  

Negative effect of Alocasia macrorrhizos on the lipid profile in hyperlipidemic rats


Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, India

Date of Web Publication11-Aug-2012

Correspondence Address:
S D Ullal
Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University - 575001, Mangalore
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0976-9234.99639

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   Abstract 

Introduction: Currently, there is considerable interest in the development of lipid-lowering agents from natural products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia macrorrhizos (AM), which is known to have anti-oxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Cholesterol-rich high-fat-diet was used to induce hyperlipidemia. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups of six rats each. Groups 1 and 2 served as normal and high-fat-diet-fed control, respectively. Group 3 received the standard drug, atorvastatin, while groups 4 and 5 received AM 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. High-fat-diet was fed for 45 days and treatment/vehicle was administered during the latter 30 days, following which blood samples of anaesthetized rats obtained by cardiac puncture were sent for lipid profile. Results: High-fat-diet significantly increased (P < 0.05) all the parameters of lipid profile compared to group 1. Atorvastatin treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, VLDL-C (P < 0.001), and triglyceride (P < 0.05), however, there was no significant change in HDL-C compared to group 2. AM at both the doses significantly reduced triglyceride and VLDL-C levels compared not only to group 2, but also to group 3 (P < 0.05). There was no change in TC and HDL-C levels, however, there was a significant dose related rise in the LDL-C level in the AM-treated groups compared to group 2 (P < 0.05 at 250 mg/kg, P < 0.001 at 500 mg/kg). Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia macrorrhizos at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg in rats significantly reduced triglyceride and VLDL-C levels; however, it increased LDL-C. Hence, it may not be suitable as a lipid-lowering agent.

Keywords: Alocasia macrorrhizos, high-fat-diet, hypolipidemic, LDL-C, triglycerides


How to cite this article:
Ramya, Ullal S D, Maskeri R, Pradeepti M S, Umma H, Rajeshwari S. Negative effect of Alocasia macrorrhizos on the lipid profile in hyperlipidemic rats. J Pharm Negative Results 2012;3:9-12

How to cite this URL:
Ramya, Ullal S D, Maskeri R, Pradeepti M S, Umma H, Rajeshwari S. Negative effect of Alocasia macrorrhizos on the lipid profile in hyperlipidemic rats. J Pharm Negative Results [serial online] 2012 [cited 2018 Oct 18];3:9-12. Available from: http://www.pnrjournal.com/text.asp?2012/3/1/9/99639


   Introduction Top


Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Atherosclerosis is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. [1] A state of persistent hypercholesterolemia causes enhanced oxidative stress leading to atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. [2] The currently used drugs like statins, fibrates and bile acid sequestrants have many side effect in patients. Thus there is considerable interest in development of lipid lowering agents from natural products. [3]

Alocasia macrorrhizos is an indigenous herb belonging to the family Araceae. Different parts of this plant are traditionally used in inflammation. The juice of leaves of the plant are used as a digestive, diuretic, astringent, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and anti-diarrhoeal agent and for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. [4] It has also been proved to have hepatoprotective properties. [5] This plant contains flavonoids, cynogenetic glycosides, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, mallic acid, oxalic acid, alocasin, amino acids, succinic acid, and β-lectines. It has also been shown to have anti-oxidant properties. [6] Most plants with anti-oxidant properties, containing flavonoids also possess hypolipidemic properties. Hence, we have planned this study to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia macrorrhizos (AM).


   Materials and Methods Top


Plant material

Fresh leaves of Alocasia macrorrhizos (Araceae) collected from different places at Mangalore were identified and authenticated by Dr. Gopalakrishna Bhat, Department of Botany, Poornaprajna College, Udupi, and a voucher specimen was deposited at the Herbarium of Institute.

Preparation of extracts (by cold maceration method) [7]


Fresh leaves of AM were shade dried for about ten days and homogenized to get a coarse powder. Powder (500 g) was extracted with ethanol (99%) and distilled water in 1: 1 proportion at room temperature by cold maceration method. The filtrate was collected and concentrated on a heating mantle at 45°C till a syrupy consistency was obtained. The extract was successively dried by using a rotary evaporator and preserved at <0°C.The percentage yield of the extract was found to be 6.75%.

Experimental animals

Albino wistar rats of either sex, inbred in the institutional animal house were used for the study. Rats were housed in clean polypropylene cages, three rats in each cage, in a controlled environment (24-26° C) with a 12 hour light and dark cycle with standard chow containing fat 4.15%, protein 22.15%, carbohydrates 4% (supplied by Amruth laboratory animal feed manufactured by Pranav Agro Industries Ltd., Sangli) and water ad libitum. The rats were allowed to acclimatize to these conditions for one week. The experiment was performed during the light phase of the cycle (10:00-17:00hours). The animals were maintained as per the CPCSEA guidelines and regulations. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee.

Induction of hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding the rats with cholesterol-rich high fat diet for 45 days.

Preparation of cholesterol rich high fat diet

Deoxycholic acid (5 g) was mixed thoroughly with 700 g of powdered rat chow diet. Simultaneously, cholesterol (5 g) was dissolved in 300 ml of coconut oil. This mixture of cholesterol and coconut oil was added slowly into the powdered mixture of deoxycholic acid and rat chow to obtain a soft homogenous cake. This cholesterol-rich high-fat diet (HFD) was molded into pellets of about 3 g each and was used to feed the animals. [8]

Study procedure

Rats were randomly assigned to five groups of six rats each. For 45 days they were fed on the high fat diet. The animals did not receive any treatment for the first 15 days. During the latter 30 days animals were treated with drug/vehicle. The feeding and treatment schedule is shown in [Table 1]:
Table 1: Treatment schedule of various groups

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Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture [10] of anaesthetized rats and were sent for complete blood lipid profile i.e. total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum LDL-cholesterol, serum VLDL-cholesterol and serum HDL-cholesterol, after 30 days of treatment.

Data analysis

The data was presented as mean ± SEM and analyzed using One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's Multiple Comparison test. Data was analyzed using SPSS software, version 17. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


   Results Top


As shown in [Table 2], the mean total cholesterol of group 1 was 70.5± 0.95 mg/dl. The mean total cholesterol of group 2 (high fat diet fed group) was significantly increased to 130.6 ± 2.9 mg/dl (P < 0.001). Atorvastatin treated group had total cholesterol of 105.83 ± 2.57 mg/dl, which is significantly lower compared to group 2 (P < 0.001). However, treatment with AM at both the doses did not reduce the total cholesterol when compared to group 2 (P = 0.885 and P = 0.473, respectively).
Table 2: Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Alocasia macrorrhizos on the lipid profile

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The mean triglyceride (TG) levels in group 2 (187 ± 6.98mg/dl) was significantly higher than that of group 1 (P < 0.001). In atorvastatin treated group mean levels of TG were significantly lower than that of group 2 (P = 0.013). AM at both the doses significantly decreased TG levels compared to group 2 (P < 0.001). Moreover, AM at both doses significantly decreased TG levels compared to group 3 as well (P < 0.001).

HDL was significantly higher in all high fat diet treated groups compared to group 1.There was no significant increase in HDL in atorvastatin-treated group compared to group 2 (P = 0.87). In AM-treated groups there was no significant difference in HDL compared to group 2 (P = 0.51 and P = 0.06)

The mean LDL levels increased in all high fat diet treated groups compared to group 1 (P < 0.001). The mean LDL level in the atorvastatin-treated group was significantly lower than that of group 2 (P < 0.001). However, the mean LDL levels in the AM-treated groups were significantly higher compared to group 2.

Atorvastatin-treated group significantly reduced VLDL levels compared to group 2 (P<0.001). AM at both the doses significantly reduced VLDL levels compared to group 2 (P < 0.05). AM at both doses significantly decreased VLDL levels compared to group 3 as well (P < 0.05).


   Discussion Top


Alocasia macrorrhizos has shown antioxidant property [6] and contains flavonoids, which are the common properties of many lipid lowering plant derivatives. Hence, we hypothesized that this plant may have potential lipid lowering effects and planned to investigate the hypolipidemic properties of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia macrorrhizos in a high fat diet induced model.

In the present study, high fat diet-fed rats had a significantly high TC, TG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C. However, HDL-C too increased. Coconut oil is known to increase HDL-C levels and our findings are consistent with previous studies. There is evidence of coconut oil raising HDL-C levels in rodents, [11] non-human primates, [12] and in humans [13] too. Coconut oil has a high content of lauric acid, which is known to increase both total cholesterol and HDL-C. [14] This could probably be the reason for the rise in HDL-C observed in our study.

Treatment with atorvastatin decreased TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C. However, HDL-C did not increase any further compared to group 2. AM at both the doses did not increase HDL-C. AM at both the doses did not decrease TC or LDL-C; on the contrary, LDL-C levels were significantly higher compared to group 2. However, it significantly decreased TG and VLDL-C levels compared to both groups 2 and 3. Hence, AM was found to have mixed effects on the lipid profile - it reduced TG and VLDL-C but significantly increased LDL-C; while there was no change in the TC and HDL-C levels. Hence, though AM has anti-oxidant, hepato protective and TG reducing properties, its long term use should entail caution since it significantly increases LDL-C level.


   Conclusion Top


The hydroalcoholic extract of Alocasia macrorrhizos at the doses of 250 and 500mg/kg in rats significantly reduced triglyceride and VLDL-C levels; however it increased LDL-C. Hence, it may not be suitable as a lipid-lowering agent.

 
   References Top

1.Dhulasavant V, Shinde S, Pawar M, NaikwadeNS. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Cinnamomum tamala Nees. on high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2011;2:506-10.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.MaruthappanV, Shakthishree K. Effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress on hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2010;42:388-91.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Kumar V, Singh P, Chander R, Mahdi F, Singh S, Singh R, et al. Hypolipidemic activity of hibiscus Rosa sinesis root in rats. Indian J Biochem Phys 2009;46:507-10.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Mulla WA, Salunkhe VR, Kucherkar BS. Free radical scarving activity of leaves of Alocasiaindica. Indian J Pharm Sci 2009;71:303-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Mulla WA, Salunkhe VR, Bhishe SB. Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasiaindica.Indian J Exp Biol 2009;47:816-21.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Mulla WA, Kuchekar SB, Thorat VS, Chopade AR, Kuchekar BS. Antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica (Schott.).J Young Pharm 2010;2:137-43.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Quality control methods for medicinal plants materials. Geneva: World Health Organisation; p. 32. 1998.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Kumar V, Singh S, Khanna AK, Khan MM, Chander R, Mahdi F, et al. Hypolipidemic activity of Anthocephalus indicus (kadam) in hyperlipidemic rats. Med Chem Res 2008;17:152-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Nachtigal P, Jamborova G, Pospisilova N, Pospechova K, Solichova D, Zdansky P, et al. Atorvastatin has distinct effects on endothelial markers in different mouse models of atherosclerosis. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2006;9:222-30.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.Beeton C, Garcia A, Chandy KG. Drawing Blood from Rats through the Saphenous Vein and by Cardiac Puncture. J Vis Exp2007;7:266.   Back to cited text no. 10
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11.Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. Wet and dry extraction of coconut oil: Impact on lipid metabolic and antioxidant status in cholesterol co-administered rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2009;87:610-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
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12.Stucchi AF, Hennessy LK, Vespa DB, Weiner EJ, Osada J, Ordovas JM, et al. Effect of corn and coconut oil-containing diets with and without cholesterol on high density lipoprotein apoprotein A-I metabolism and hepatic apoprotein A-I mRNA Levels in Cebus monkeys. ArteriosclerThrombVascBiol 1991;11:1719-29.  Back to cited text no. 12
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13.Katan MB, Zock PL, Mensink RP. Effects of fats and fatty acids on blood lipids in humans: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:1017S-22S.  Back to cited text no. 13
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14.Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation. Clin Biochem 2004;37:830-5.  Back to cited text no. 14
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