|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 22-24
Insignificant antidermatophytic activity of Brassica campestris oil
Neetu Jain, Meenakshi Sharma
Department of Botany, Laboratory of Microbiology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
|Date of Web Publication||16-Jul-2014|
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Introduction: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidermatophytic activity of Brassica campestris oil against selected dermatophytes through a disc diffusion technique. Materials and Methods : Four concentrations of mustard oil, 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%, were screened against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton simii, Chrysosporium indicum, and Chrysosporium tropicum through the disc diffusion technique. Results : The result showed that 25% and 50% concentrations of oil did not show any zone of inhibition. 75% and 100% concentration showed very poor activity against T. rubrum, T. simii, and C. indicum but in the case of C.tropicum, no zone of inhibition was observed . Conclusion: The mustard oil does not exhibited significant antidermatophytic activity in the disc diffusion method.
Keywords: Dermatophytes, dermatophytosis, fungi, griseofulvin, trichophyton
|How to cite this article:|
Jain N, Sharma M. Insignificant antidermatophytic activity of Brassica campestris oil. J Pharm Negative Results 2014;5:22-4
| Introduction|| |
Dermatophytoses pose a serious concern to the sociologically backward and economically poor population of India. ,, Dermatophytoses represents systemic or deep fungal infections that may have prominent cutaneous and systemic manifestations. The disease is predominant in tropical and sub-tropical countries due to their prevailing moisture and temperature regimes and pose a therapeutic problem. Despite the availability of new systemic antifungal therapies, dermatophytic infections are difficult to eradicate completely, with recurrence reported in up to 25-40% of cases.  Many antifungal synthetic drugs namely imidazoles, butanafine, and terbinafine are effective in the treatment of dermatophytoses  but disease recurrence, resistant dermatophytic strains, and adverse effects are some drawbacks associated with popular antifungals.  In the present scenario, plants and their products have gained more importance as a possible source of alternative and effective drugs. Because of the long history of plants in the treatment of different human ailments, most of the herbal drugs are believed to be safer than the synthetic drugs with no side effects. Plants remain as an untapped reservoir of potentially useful chemical compounds not only as drugs but also as unique templates that could serve as a starting point for synthetic analogs. ,,,
Brassica campestris belonging to the family Brassicaceae is commonly known as mustard. Mustard oil has about 60% monounsaturated fatty acids (42% erucic acid and 12% oleic acid); it has about 21% polyunsaturated fats (6% the omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid and 15% the omega-6 linoleic acid) and it has about 12% saturated fats.
In our previous studies, flower, leaves, and stem parts of B. campestris plant were extracted for their water, methanol, free and bound extracts against dermatophytes and found excellent results.  These finding prompted us to explore other plant products that could be exploited as antifungal. Antimicrobial activity of mustard oil has been studied by various workers. , Therefore, in the present investigation, we used B. campestris oil against selected dermatophytes.
| Materials and methods|| |
Mustard oil was procured from the authorized Engine marked company store from Jaipur. The oil was store in amber color bottle in a refrigerator.
Micro organism for in vitro studies
B. campestris oil was evaluated for their antifungal properties against selected pathogens. T. rubrum and T. simii were isolated from infected skin scrapings of Tinea patients from SMS Hospital, Jaipur, while C. tropicum and C. indicum were isolated from soil samples through To.Ka.Va. hair-baiting technique of Vanbreuseghem.  These fungi were maintained on Sabouroud's dextrose agar medium.
Screening of Oil
The filter paper disc diffusion assay by Wannisorn et al.  was used with slightly modification for screening the essential oils against dermatophytes. Standard size whatman no. 1 filter paper discs 6.0 mm in diameter, sterilized by dry heat at 140°C in an oven for 1 hour were used to determine antifungal activity. 20 ml sterilized Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium was taken in each autoclaved Petri dish More Details and allowed to solidify. Fungal spore suspension was prepared in sterilized 0.85% saline water by transferring a loopful of 15 day-old culture. 1 ml of spore suspension of approximately 0.5 to 5 × 10 4 (cfu/ml) was spread over the respective agar medium plates. Sterilized filter paper were soaked in neat undiluted oil. An oil saturated disc was placed on an agar plate containing fungal spore suspension. Ketoconazole was used as a standard drug. These plates were incubated. Five replicates were kept in each case and the average values were determined and inhibition zones were observed. The antifungal activity was determined by measuring the inhibition zone around the disc. The activity of oil was measured by the following formula.
| Results and discussion|| |
During the present investigation, the disc diffusion method was not found to be good for the screening of mustard oil against test dermatophytes. All the four concentrations of mustard oil could not exhibit good antifungal properties against these test fungi. According to data incorporated in [Table 1], Chrysosporium tropicum was found to be a resistant strain with all the four concentrations of mustard oil. Seventy-five percent and 100% concentration of oil showed little activity against Trichophyton rubrum, T. simii, and C. indicum. The maximum zone of 10 mm was observed when 100% concentrated oil was used against T. rubrum and T. simii. However, the maximum AI = 0.529 was seen against C. indicum. Fifty percent and 25% oil did not exhibit any response against these fungi. When the activity of oil was compared with standard drug, Griseofulvin, Itraconazole, and Ketoconazole, it was found that mustard oil is a very poor agent against selected fungi in the present study. In our previous work,  free and bound flavonoid fractions of leaf, flower, and pod of B. campestris showed the excellent antidermatophytic activity as compared to standards. Previous reports ,, showed B. campestris oil as effective antifungal but present studies showed negative result. In the present investigation, we used the disc diffusion method. Mustard oil is very viscous oil which could not be diffused as compared to other essential oil. However, in other method like the food poisoning method, we add oil in liquid medium containing fungal inoculum where oil show effective result. The present investigation concluded that disc diffusion technique is not an effective technique for viscous oil like mustard oil.
|Table 1: Comparison of efficacy of Brassica campestris oil with commercial antifungal drugs |
Click here to view
| References|| |
|1.||Bhadauria S, Jain N, Sahrma M, Kumar P. Dermatophytosis in Jaipur: Study of incidence, clinical feature and causal agent. Indian J Microbiol 2001;41:207-10. |
|2.||Bindu V, Pavithran K. Clinicomycological study of dermatophytes in Calicut. Indian J Dermatol Venerol Leprol 2002;68:259-61. |
|3.||Kannan P, Janaki C, Selvi GS. Prevlence of dermatophytes and other fungal agents isolated from clinical samples. Indian J Med Microbiol 2006;24:212-5. |
|4.||Hay RJ. The future of onychomycosis therapy may involve a combination of approaches. Br J Dermatol 2001;145:3-8. |
|5.||Jacob Z, Wahab S, Ghosh M, Shrivastava OP. Superficial mycoses and in vitro sensitivity of dermatophytes and Candida species to tolciclate and clotrimazole. Indian J Med Res 1981;74:365-71. |
|6.||Artis WM, Odle BM, Jones HE. Griseofulvin resistant dermatophytosis correlates with in vitro resistance. Arch Dermatol 1981;117:16-9. |
|7.||Jain N, Sharma M. Broad spectrum antimycotic drug for the treatment of ring worm infection in human beings. Curr Sci 2003;85:30-4. |
|8.||Bhadauria S, Kumar P. Broad spectrum antidermatophytic drug for the control of tinea infection in human beings. Mycoses 2012;55:339-43. |
|9.||Lima EO, Gompertz OF, Giesbrecht AM, MQ. Paulo. In vitro antifungal activity of essential oil obtained from officinal plants against dermatophytes. 1993;36:333-6. |
|10.||Srinivasan D, Nathan S, Suresh T, Lakshmana Perumalsamy P. Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. J Ethanopharmacol 2001;74:217-20. |
|11.||Jain N, Sharma M, Kumar P. Regulatory effect of some plant extract on the growth of dermatophytic fungi. Indian J Microbiol 2004;44:59-64. |
|12.||Prasad RY, Alankararao GS, Baby P. Antimicrobial studies on the seed oil of Brassica juncea. Fitoterpia 1993;64:373-4. |
|13.||Meena MR, Sethi V. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from spices. J Food Sci Tech 1994;31:68-70. |
|14.||Vanbreuseghem R. Technique biologique pour! isolements des dermatophyte du soil (Biological technique for the isolation of dermatophytes from the soil). Ann Soc Belge De Med Tech 1952;32:173-8. |
|15.||Wannisorn B, Jariksam S, Soontorntanasart T. Antifungal activity of lemon grass and lemon grass oil cream. Phytother Res 1996;10:551-4. |
|16.||Sitara U, Niaz I, Naseem J, Sultana N. Antifungal effect of essential oil on in vitro growth of pathogenic fungi. Pak J Bot 2008;40:409-14. |