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Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 57-62

Comparing the efficacy of dexmedetomidine, dexamethasone, and metoclopramide in postoperative nausea and vomiting of tympanomastoidectomy surgery: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

1 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2 Department of Student Research Committee, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
3 Research Center for Environmental Pollutants, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Esmail Moshiri
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpnr.JPNR_15_18

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Objective: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are of the most common complications after anesthesia and surgery that affects 20%–30% of patients. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of dexmedetomidine (DEXM), dexamethasone (DEXA), and metoclopramide (METO) on the reduction of PONV after tympanomastoidectomy. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study, 90 patients who undergoing tympanomastoidectomy surgery were assigned to DEXM (1 μg/kg/intravenous [IV]), DEXA (0.1 mg/kg/IV), and METO (0.15 mg/kg/IV) groups by block randomization method. The initial vital signs and vomiting score as responses to treatment were assessed using visual analog scale through 24 h (6, 12, 18, and 24) after the end of surgery. The vomiting score varied from 0 (no vomiting) to 100 (the worst possible vomiting). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA was used for statistical analysis in SPSS version 12.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The incidence of PONV was 10%, in DEXM 0%, DEXA 6.7%, and 23.3% in METO. Vomiting score is much lower for the DEXM than for the other two groups, and rather rapidly declined 18 h after the intervention. The difference of time 6–24 was significant among three groups (P < 0.05). A greater reduction observed in vomiting total scores in DEXM group compared to other groups at time 18–24 as well as time 6–24. Conclusion: DEXM, DEXA, and METO are effective drugs for control of PONV after tympanomastoidectomy surgery. However, the reduction effect of DEXM and DEXA in vomiting total scores was higher than METO.

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