Bioremediation Of Wastewater Using Bacterial Isolates
Bioremediation is an innovative and most promising technology in today’s world to reduce the effect of pollutants in which microbes are used to remove or neutralize the harmful pollutants from contaminated sites including water and soil. The present study was based on the bioremediation of the wastes obtained from the sites which are situated nearby the banks of The River Chambal. The aim of the current research was to study the physico-chemical properties of Chambal River, Kota, Rajasthan, and the isolation of bacterial population from the various study sites and their bioremediation potential. The bacterial species were isolated, identified and characterized as per standard methods and their capability to reduce industrial waste contaminants was determined for the process of bioremediation. The physicochemical qualities of the effluent samples of three Wastewater sites (Sazidehra site, Raipura site and Nayapura site) and one control site (Akelgarh site) in Kota district of Rajasthan, India were evaluated. The physicochemical parameters assessed included color, odor, pH, temperature, total dissolved solid (TDS), turbidity (NTU), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and Heavy metals. The results of the evaluation were as follows: temperature (28 ºC-36ºC), COD (17-92mg/L), and turbidity (1.96-286 NTU), BOD (2-7mg/l), DO (1-7mg/l) and TDS (175-1890mg/l). The temperature, TDS, turbidity, COD, DO were not found to be in the recommended limits. Some of the parameters exceeded from their normal ranges and some was found to be very low and considering the samples unhealthy for drinking and highly polluted. At Akelgarh site, Streptococcus pyogene, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus bacteria was found as prominent, while at Sazidehra site Bacillus licheniformis, Salmonella enterica, and Pseudomonas putida found as dominant bacterial isolates. At Raipura site, Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains was found in high amount and at Nayapura, site Pseudomonas denitrificans, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria were isolated in high amount. To determine the adaptation and reducing capability of these bacteria various physio-chemical properties were studied and as a positive result was obtained in the form of decreased level of BOD, COD, and turbidity while an increase in the DO level of the water samples collected. The Raipura site was found highly contaminated. The heavy metals were concentrated in the research area, which suggests that the river is severely polluted. Zinc (Zn) was found highly (267ppm) accumulated in the sewage water of Raipura site followed by Chromium (Cr). We conclude that these sewage dumping areas of water sources are polluted to their respective watersheds receiving and causing public health threats and environmental health retardation.